Exploring Sepik art & culture

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From the 27th of october 2015 until the 31rst of January, The Musée du Quai Branly in Paris gathered a suite of 230 sculptures concerning the culture Sepik.

The Sepik is actually the longest river in North Papua New Guinea, of nearly 1,200 kilometers snaking through the swamps and rainforest, before spilling into the Pacific Ocean.

As human occupation is attested for several millennia, the river used to be a source of food and a means of transport, but it was also a source of threat, with flooding and crocodiles, and many other animals that populated the Sepik mythologia.

Along its shores, a countless diversity of cultures and languages ​​has developed over millennia. Scientists could count over 90 different languages, the smaller language groups being limited to a few villages of 300-400 inhabitants.

 

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IMG_4704.jpgVarious linguistic groups in the Sepik area

 

The abundance of food the Sepik River has induced the development of complex rituals and ceremonies to consume and use them. That gave an opportunity to make many objects.

Sepik Iconography and artfacts

Big and powerful birds, as sculptures on houses, often represented the agressive strength of the whole village, which would spot men in enemy territories, such as fishes to be caught.

The world of women and men were strictly separated. The spaces reserved for women, dwelling houses in particular were accessible to all members of family lines, friends and guests. This is where women prepared food and mesh bags, or richly decorated pottery.

There also were mythical figures like Daria, a very powerful and quite malicious woman, representing the authoritarian mother goddess but also distributing wealth.

The men’s house, inevitably forbidden to women, is symbolically a woman’s body, referring to a glorious feminine ancestor. Several masks and erotic carvings represent this symbol in the men’s house, the center of the male world and ceremonial life. Only adults had the right to enter the imposing building, with high roof and exuberant exterior and interior decoration. In the house of men, were preserved items used in the mysterious male rituals, including the initiation of young boys such as spears and masks.

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In Sepik, ritual passage into adulthood leads to very impressive dances and songs. Boys to be initiated would be secluded in the forest, eating a special kind of food and once they appeared again in the village, they were celebrated as having reborn. Giant drums resonate for days and nights.

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Drum from Kairiru island

 

Being initiated gave men access to knowledge and the privilege of accessing the most powerful objects, such as masks, musical instruments, sculptures, bones, shells….These were directly linked to the ancestors.The Sepik masks have in common to be very frightful. And those who wear the costumes are adorned with leaves and feathers, they look like monsters.

The paddles were often considered as « the first child » by the warriors attacking another village. But the military expedition did not aim at destroying the enemy and every mission was submitted to the ritual and spiritual prescriptions. For the first cut head, a man was considered a real warrior by the village.

A paste made of sap, lime and red ocher was used to mold the cut heads to keep them in the houses of men.

The ancestors played a key role, especially as creators of the world. They were ubiquitous in everyday life and rituals. We perceived the sound of their voice through water drums and bamboo flutes. Terrifying figures of ancestors and masks created with boundless fantasy were used in initiation rituals that can last one year.

Ancestors figures were proeminent in the Sepik culture also because ancestors represented the « Everything ».

Ancestors decided what the law was, and if someone, would act against the law, ancestors would appear in various shapes to punish.

The crocodile often represents the ancestors: In some villages, such as in the tribe Iatmul, during the initiation rites, the bodies of the boys are adorned with spectacular scarifications representing crocodile-ancestors bites. Crocodiles symbolically eat the young non-initiated spirit and spit the new out at the end of initiation.

IMG_4745.jpgScarifications on initiated men

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A boat-shaped crocodile statue in one of the most famous sepik creation. Carefully carved from wood, it length two meters. That gives a hint of the Sepik River dimensions.

These canoes allowed the people to exchange goods and objects, to find partners to marry, but also to make war. They were the most important means of transport in the Sepik Basin.

Zoomorphic trophies as the skull of crocodile where adorned with precious stones to create sparkling blue eye. Numerous musical instruments, which, thanks to their sound, embodied the ancestors: for example, bamboo flutes up to two meters long, that rendered voices, important in initiation rituals.

Iatmul

The Iatmul were a broad ethnic group inhabiting some two-dozen politically autonomous villages along the middle Sepik River. The Iatmul were not a centralized tribe. They never acted politically, socially, economically or as a single unit. Villages were autonomous. Yet, the communities were roughly grouped according their language as well as sociocultural affinities.

In Iatmul legend, the original status of the world was a primal sea.

The waves stirred by the wind made the land surfaced, leaving out the first generation of ancestral spirits and culture-heroes. The ancestors then embarked in a series of mythic-historical migrations. Where they trod, land would appear. The ancestors created the world through naming. Literally, They named all the features of the world into existence-trees, mountains, stars, winds, rains, tributaries, towns, everything in the world. These names are called Expired totemic names. They are patrilineal names claimed by specific clans and lineages. Totemic names are magical, and form the basis for the religious system.

The Iatmul are best known for their art, related to men’s houses, male initiation, elaborate totems, and a famous rituals.

Explorations and heritage

The Sepik River was long neglected by explorers and travelers. But in the sixteenth century, the first Europeans landed on the island of New Guinea, a part of Papua New Guinea. However, the river would only be discovered in 1886 when a German researchers colony settled there. It was not before years that exploration trips were organised, including the Hamburg expedition of 1908-1910 and the Berlin South Seas expedition in 1912-1913.

Quickly, Europe got to know the exceptional aesthetic value of Sepik art. The first masks, drums and sculptures from Papua New Guinea who managed to arrive in Europe, there are over a hundred years, caused a sensation. 20th century artists used the visual language of these carved wood, which was new to them; Expressionist artists such as Emil Nolde and Max Pechstein, members of the Brücke group, but also the Surrealists were fascinated by the poetic beauty and the artisanal virtuosity of these objects from Oceania. The European public was intrigued by the unusual materials, such as shells, feathers, but also bone or animal teeth.

 

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A sepik headrest that belonged to André Breton

To know more about the exhibition:

http://www.quaibranly.fr/fr/expositions-evenements/au-musee/expositions/details-de-levenement/e/sepik-26753/

 

Publicités

Chinese extend in Africa, a showdown between two gigantic eras: °I

In recent years, black Africa has been a place of chinese people inflow, would it be in Sudan, in Zimbabwe or Nigeria….touching areas such as raw materials.  Indeed, China is working to strengthen its economic relations with Africa, but it also concerns cultural weightiness.

But if economic and cutural relations between Republic of China and black Africa  intensified for two decades, particularly since the « Year of Africa in China », 2006, Beijingis is working to support its strong growth from the 50s, when Mao Zedong gave support for independence movements in the Third World. This assistance lead many African countries newly born to fall for China’s part in the diplomatic struggle which opposes to Taiwan, including obtaining his seat at the UN.

Gradually, this arrival from east were asserted by many worldwide observers, as a manifestation of neo-colonialism to the point of qualify it « Chinafrica », in remembrance of « Françafrique ». Some even wandered about China as a neocolonial power in sub-Saharan Africa…

But more than colonialism this is about cooperation:

As a logical consequence of its strong growth, Beijing has sought to build strong economic relations with Africa. For example, while the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties with Egypt tooked place, in 2006 the third forum on Sino-African cooperation were also held, where almost all African heads of state were present to dedicate China as the first partner of the continent.

But if that presence is well proven and accepted by the african leaders, what are the concrete reasons for such a presence in the southern continent; for which interest China has given it all that bad since the 50s?

Chinese interests in Africa are plentiful, and cut across a lot of raw materials, and in many countries, we see that it is present on the overall African territory:

In Zambia: China is client for copper.
In Zimbabwe: for chromium.
In South Africa: client for iron.
In Gabon: for wood.
In Sudan: China is Sudan’s major trading patrner, the largest buyer of sudanese oil, and a key military supplier to the regime in Karthoum.
In Angola and Nigeria: China removes crude oil.
In Mali and the Gulf of Guinea: China is prospecting raw materials.
In Africa: China’s exports of textile quality at the expense of local workers.
The document on China’s African policy, for the first time formally outlined the principles of Sino-African relations and erected a strategic review. According to it, since 2005, Beijing became the first supplier of Africa, before the United States and France, as well as its second client behind the United States after a five-fold increase of trade since 2000. In 2007, bilateral trade accounts for 70 billion. However, it is the European Unions that remain in the lead.

 The map below illustrates the amount of chinese investments in 2005 in Africa:


Thus, we see that China needs to invest Africa to develop, and therefore African negotiators should be able to sell at a much better price than the cheap prices they get now.

 The human aftermarths of this strong presence are an extensive slave of kidnapping, without seeing the strong presence necessarily the direct cause of these terrorist actions:

– In Sudan: this past week (31rst of january 2012), in south Sudan, chinese workers involved in a road-building project in South Kordofan were kidnapped by south soudan rebels; 17 others have been moved to safety by the sudanese army. since saturday, while 29 remain captive.

– in Egypt: Twenty-five Chinese workers were taken hostage by Bedouin tribesmen, but they were freed hopefully fastly.

These are exemplum of series…..

Indeed, not all the african countries seem to agree about the trade-off, and the way it is conducted by Chinese governement:  The  president of Zambia, Michael Sata, has been highly critical of Chinese mining companies and the way they treat his nation’s workers. Moreover, China has come to be under control for having cut deals with repressive governments  (Sudan).

This presence arouses debate in the economic worldwide community:

Last november at Intelligence Squared, London, a live forum for debate gathering  a Portuguese politician, two professors of international studies, a Ghanaian economist, on the question: « Is Chinese investment good for Africa? »

See below the introduction: